Our Team

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Dr. Wade O. Watanabe

Research Professor, Aquaculture Program Coordinator
University of North Carolina Wilmington, Center for Marine Science
Program Leader for Mariculture
MARBIONC, Marine Biotechnology in North Carolina.

Education:
B.S.: 1973, Zoology, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
M.S.: 1975, Zoology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.
Ph.D.: 1982, Zoology, University of Hawaii.

Research:
Marine finfish aquaculture, including research on intensive recirculating aquaculture system design and operation, waste management, nutrient recycling through integrated multitrophic aquaculture (finfish, microalgae, shellfish and salt-tolerant plants), economics and marketing of aquaculture production, and transfer of technology to commercial users through pilot-scale demonstration.

Selected Publications:
Watanabe, W.O., S.C. Ellis, E.P. Ellis, W.D. Head, C.D. Kelley, A. Moriwake, C.-S. Lee and P.K. Bienfang. 1995. Progress in controlled breeding of Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus) broodstock by hormone induction. Aquaculture 138: 205-219.

Ellis, S.C., G. Viala, and W.O. Watanabe. 1996. Growth and feed utilization of hatchery-reared, juvenile Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus) fed four practical diets. Progressive Fish-Culturist 58: 167-172.

Watanabe, W.O., E.P. Ellis, S.C. Ellis, V.G. Lopez, J. Ginoza and A. Moriwake. 1996. Evaluation of first-feeding regimes for larval Nassau grouper (E. striatus) and preliminary pilot-scale culture through metamorphosis. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 27: 323-331.

Watanabe, W.O., M.W. Feeley, S.C. Ellis, E.P. Ellis and R.A. Cooper. 1998. Light intensity and salinity effects on eggs and yolksac larvae of the summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus. Progressive Fish-Culturist 60: 9-19 (Am. Fisheries Society Best Paper Award for 1999).

Watanabe, W.O., E.P. Ellis, S.C. Ellis, J. Chavez, C. Mandfredi, R.W. Hagood, M. Sparsis and S. Arneson. 1998. Artificial propagation of mutton snapper Lutjanus analis a new candidate marine fish species for aquaculture. Journal World Aquaculture Society 29: 176-187.

Watanabe, W.O., E.P. Ellis, S.C. Ellis and M.W. 1998. Progress in controlled maturation and spawning of summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus broodstock. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 29: 393-404.

Watanabe, W.O. S. C. Ellis, E. P. Ellis and M.W. Feeley. 1999. Temperature effects on eggs and yolksac larvae of the summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus at different salinities. North American Journal of Aquaculture 61: 267-277. (Nominee American Fisheries Society Best Paper Award for 1999 in N.A. Journal of Aquaculture).

Watanabe, W.O. and P. Carroll. 2001. Progress in controlled reproduction of summer and southern flounders, Paralichthys dentatus and P. lethostigma. Journal of Applied Aquaculture 11: 89-111.

Watanabe, W.O., P. M. Carroll and H.V. Daniels. 2001. Sustained, natural spawning of southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) broodstock under an extended photothermal regime. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 32: 153-166.

Watanabe, W.O. 2001. Species profile: Mutton snapper. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center. Texas A & M University. SRAC Pub. No. 725. 10 pp.

Copeland, K.A., W.O. Watanabe and P.M. Carroll. 2002. Growth and feed utilization of captive wild-caught black sea bass Centropristis striata fed practical diets in a recirculating tank system under a semi-controlled temperature regime. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 33: 97-109.

Copeland, K.A., W.O. Watanabe, P.M. Carroll, K.S. Wheatley, and T.M. Losordo. 2003. Growth and feed utilization of captive wild black sea bass Centropristis striata at four different densities in a recirculating tank system. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 34: 300-307.

Watanabe, W.O., T. M. Losordo, K. Fitzsimmons and F. Hanley. 2002. Tilapia production systems in the Americas: technological advances, trends and challenges. Reviews in Fisheries Science 10: 465-498.

Daniels, H.V. and W.O. Watanabe. 2003. A practical hatchery manual: Production of southern flounder fingerlings. North Carolina Sea Grant. 40 pp.

Henne, J.P. and W.O. Watanabe. 2003. Effects of light intensity and salinity on growth, survival and osmoregulatory ability of southern flounder larvae Paralichthys lethostigma. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 34: 450-465.

Watanabe, W.O., T.I.J. Smith, D.L. Berlinsky, C.A. Woolridge, K.R. Stuart, K.A. Copeland and M.R. Denson. 2003. Volitional spawning of black sea bass Centropristis striata induced with pelleted luteinizing hormone releasing hormone-analogue. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 34: 319-331.

Moustakas, C. Th., W.O. Watanabe and K.A. Copeland. 2004. Combined effects of photoperiod and salinity on growth, survival, and osmoregulatory ability of southern flounder Paralichthys lethostigma. Aquaculture Journal 229: 159-179.

Watanabe, W.O., D.D. Benetti, M.W. Feeley, D. A. Davis and R.P. Phelps. 2004. Status of artificial propagation of mutton, yellowtail and red snapper (family Lutjanidae) in the southeastern U.S. American Fisheries Society Symposium. American Fisheries Society. Bethesda, Maryland. Symposium 46: 517-540.

Carroll, P.M., W.O. Watanabe and T.M. Losordo. 2005. Pilot production of hatchery-reared summer flounder in a marine recirculating aquaculture system: the effects of ration level on growth, feed conversion, and survival. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 36: 120-128.

Copeland, K.A., W.O. Watanabe and C. Dumas. 2005. Economic evaluation of a small-scale recirculating system for ongrowing of captive wild black sea bass Centropristis striata in North Carolina. Journal World Aquaculture Society: 36: 489-497.

Morgan, A.J., R. Murashige, C.A. Woolridge, J.A. Luckenbach, W.O. Watanabe, R.J. Borski, and H.V. Daniels. 2006. Effective UV dose and pressure shock for induction of meiotic gynogenesis in southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) using black sea bass (Centropristis striata) sperm. Aquaculture 259:290-299.

Watanabe, W.O. and G. Miller. 2006. Nassau Grouper. Book Chapter in Aquaculture Compendium 2006 Edition. CAB International. Available on CD-ROM and the Internet. www/cabicompendium.org/ac

Watanabe, W.O., Woolridge, C.A. and H.V. Daniels. 2006. Progress toward year-round spawning of southern flounder broodstock by manipulation of temperature and photoperiod. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 37: 256-272.

Watanabe, W.O., K. Fitzsimmons and Yang Yi. 2006. Farming of tilapia in saline waters. In: C. Webster and C. Lim, editors. Tilapia Culture, Nutrition, and Feeding. Haworth Press, Binghamton, NY 347-447.

Mangino, A. and W.O. Watanabe. 2007. Combined effects of turbulence and salinity on growth, survival and whole-body osmolality of larval southern flounder. Journal World Aquaculture Society 37: 407-418.

Bentley, C.D., P.M. Carroll, A.M. Riedel and W.O. Watanabe. 2008. Intensive rotifer production in a pilot-scale continuous culture recirculating system using condensed microalgae. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 39: 625-635.

Morris, J.A Jr., T. C. Rezek, N.A. McNeill and W.O. Watanabe. 2008. Aquaculture of the Atlantic Red Porgy. North American Journal of Aquaculture 70: 184-191.

Bentley, C.D.,W.O. Watanabe,T.C. Rezek, and P.J. Seaton. 2009. Preliminary investigations on the effects of dietary lipid on the spawning performance and egg quality of black sea bass Centropristis striata L. Aquaculture Research 40: 1873-1883.

Daniels, H.V., W.O. Watanabe, R. Murashige, T. Losordo and C. Dumas. 2010. Chapter 5. Culture of southern flounder, pp. 82-100, In Practical Flatfish Culture and Stock Enhancement, H.V. Daniels and W.O. Watanabe, editors. Wiley-Blackwell Publishers, Ames, Iowa. 366 pp.

Watanabe, W.O. and H.V. Daniels. 2010. Chapter 18, Practical Flatfish Culture and Stock Enhancement: Summary and conclusions, pp. 323-354: In Practical Flatfish Culture and Stock Enhancement, H.V. Daniels and W.O. Watanabe, editors. Wiley-Blackwell Publishers, Ames, Iowa. 366 pp.

Rezek, T.C., W.O. Watanabe, M. Harel and P.J. Seaton. 2010. The effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) on growth, survival and stress resistance in black sea bass (Centropristis striata) larvae. Aquaculture Research 41: 1273-1412.

Ostrowski, A.D., W.O. Watanabe, F.P. Montgomery, T.C. Rezek, T.H. Shafer, J.A. Morris Jr. 2010. Effects of salinity and temperature on the growth, survival, whole body osmolality, and expression of Na+/K+ ATPase mRNA in red porgy (Pagrus pagrus) larvae. Aquaculture 314: 193-201.

Watanabe, W. O., and Alam, M. S. 2010. Plant-based feeds for black sea bass show promise. NOAA-Aqua Feeds initiative. Case study three. Pages 17-19 In: M.B Rust, F.T. Barrows, R.W. Hardy, A. Lazur, K. Naughten and J. Silverstein (editors). The Future of Aquafeeds. NOAA/USDA Alternative Feeds Initiative. http://aquaculture.noaa.gov

Watanabe, W. O., P.M. Carroll, T.C. Rezek, A.R. Myers, C.D. Bentley and M.S. Alam. 2011. Production of Black Sea Bass Fingerlings: A Practical Hatchery Manual. Publication No.: North Carolina Sea Grant, Raleigh, North Carolina. UNC-SG-11-06. (In Press).

Daniels, H.V. and W.O. Watanabe (Editors). 2010. Practical Flatfish Culture and Stock Enhancement. Wiley-Blackwell Publishers, Ames, Iowa. 366 pp.

Watanabe, W.O. 2011. Species profile: Black Sea Bass. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center. Texas A & M University. SRAC Publication No. 7207. October 2011.

Carrier, J.K. III, W.O. Watanabe, M. Harel, T. F. Rezek, P. J. Seaton and T.H. Shafer. 2011. Effects of dietary arachidonic acid on larval performance, fatty acid profiles, stress resistance, and expression of Na+/K+ ATPase mRNA in black sea bass Centropristis striata. Aquaculture 319: 111-121.